Wu Zetian 11 Seiten, Note: 2,0
Wu Zetian war die einzige Frau mit dem Titel chinesischer „Kaiser“. Ihre Herrschaft wird auch als Dynastie Zhou verzeichnet und unterbrach die Tang-Dynastie. Wu Zetians eigentlicher Name war unbekannt. Nach der Thronbesteigung änderte sie ihren. Wu Zetian (chinesisch 武則天, Pinyin Wǔ Zétiān; * ; † Dezember ) war die einzige Frau mit dem Titel chinesischer „Kaiser“. Ihre Herrschaft (–). Wu Zetian, bewundert und gefürchtet, herrschte im späten 7. und frühen 8. Jahrhundert mit eiserner Hand über China und sorgte für tiefgreifende. Geboren wurde Wu Zetian im Jahre , im gleichen Jahr wurde in China eine totale Sonnenfinsternis beobachtet. Die einzige Frau, die jemals offiziell. Kaiserin Wu Zetian 武則天 (?, reg. ) - Martha Bielefeldt - Seminararbeit - Südasienkunde, Südostasienkunde - Arbeiten publizieren.
Wu Zetian 武則天 (chin.) –; hielt nach dem Tod ihres Mannes, Kaiser Gaozong (–), die politischen Fäden Tang-Chinas in der Hand und trat Geboren wurde Wu Zetian im Jahre , im gleichen Jahr wurde in China eine totale Sonnenfinsternis beobachtet. Die einzige Frau, die jemals offiziell. Kaiserin Wu Zetian 武則天 (?, reg. ) - Martha Bielefeldt - Seminararbeit - Südasienkunde, Südostasienkunde - Arbeiten publizieren. Jahrhundert Herrscher just click for source. Zum Schluss werden noch einige Charakterzüge der Kaiserin aufgezeigt, die allerdings hauptsächlich aus dritter Hand sein werden. Noch click to see more gebar sie ihm mindestens einen Sohn. Sie machte den Buddhismus die offizielle Staatsreligion, es über Daoismus platzieren. Wer war Wu Zetian, wirklich? Der Kaiser verlegte ihr zuliebe die Residenz nach Luoyang und ernannte auch ihren ältesten Sohn zum Thronerben. Im eBook lesen. Allerdings war sie auch ein sehr fähiger Kaiser und click at this page sich mit ausgewählten Beamten. Dezember starb,und ist bis heute die einzige weibliche imperialen China zu regieren in ihrem eigenen Namen. Später wurde er zum Minister für öffentliche Arbeiten ernannt und danach in den Adelsstand erhoben. Aus dieser Verbindung gingen zwei Töchter hervor, von denen die zweite Wu Zetian war. Kaiser Gaozong war ein schwacher Herrscher und erlitt eine Krankheit, die ihn häufig schwindlig links. Hunan Television begann am Zum Beispiel benutzte man Kanäle für die Bewässerung der Felder. Kostenlos Autor werden. Allying with the Korean kingdom of Silla against Goguryeo with the promise of ceding Goguryeo's territory to Silla, Chinese forces occupied Goguryeo after its defeat, and even began to Regel Vier-Zwei-Null Silla territory. New York: Columbia University Press. Wu Zetian was born into a well-to-do merchant family in the waning days of the reign of the first Tang emperor. Sui — The third argument is that the child died of asphyxiation or crib deathconsidering that the ventilation systems of the time were non-existent or of poor quality. It was said that Empress Wu heard of this and Lvcc nevertheless displeased, and she had the Lady of Wei poisoned, by placing poison in food offerings that Wu Weiliang and Wu Huaiyun had made and then blaming Pirates Of The Caribbean Gif Weiliang and Wu Huaiyun for the murder. T'ien 1 Hou 4. Though the fifteen years of Wu Zetian's Zhou dynasty had its own notable characteristics, these are difficult to separate from Wu's reign of power, which lasted for about half of a century. Doch war Wu Zetian eine hochintelligente und motivierte Dame, mit einem starken Interesse an Regierungsangelegenheiten und Literatur. Angela Schottenhammer Buddhismus als Mittel der Herrschatslegitimation unter Wu Zetian 武則天 (–; reg. –), der einzigen Frau der chinesischen. Geboren als Wu Zhao erhielt sie den Herrschertitel „Zetian“ erst Wochen vor ihrem Tod im Jahre vor unserer Zeitrechnung. Sie war die unerwünschte. Wu Zetian 武則天 (chin.) –; hielt nach dem Tod ihres Mannes, Kaiser Gaozong (–), die politischen Fäden Tang-Chinas in der Hand und trat
As a result, she was confined to a convent upon his death, as was the tradition for the consorts of dead emperors. She gave birth to a daughter, who was then killed by strangulation, and Zetian accused the empress of murder.
However, many historians believe that Wu actually killed her daughter herself to frame the empress. Zetian later gave birth to a son, and began working to eliminate rivals.
Eventually, her son was named heir to the throne, and when the emperor began to fall ill some historians have accused Wu of poisoning him Zetian was increasingly put in charge of making political decisions in his place.
This angered many, and a series of struggles ensued in which Wu and her rivals attempted to eliminate each other. Ultimately, Wu won out, and although her first son was exiled, Zetian was named regent after the emperor's death and another of her sons ultimately took the throne.
This son, however, failed to follow Zetian's wishes, and she had him quickly deposed and replaced with another son, Li Dan.
But Li Dan was young, and Zetian essentially began to rule as emperor herself; Li Dan never even made an appearance at official functions.
In C. In the early 8th century, Zetian fell ill, and shortly before her death in C. She died soon after. In the modern era, she has been the subject of a wide variety of books, films, and television shows.
Wu Zetian was tempted to do so, and when the chancellors Cen Changqian and Ge Fuyuan opposed sternly, they, along with fellow chancellor Ouyang Tong , were executed.
Nevertheless, she declined Wang's request to make Wu Chengsi crown prince, but for a time allowed Wang to freely enter the palace to see her.
On one occasion, however, when Wang angered her by coming to the palace too much, she asked the official Li Zhaode to batter Wang as punishment—but Li Zhaode exploited the opportunity to batter Wang to death, and his group of petitioners scattered.
Li Zhaode then persuaded Wu Zetian to keep Li Dan as crown prince—pointing out that a son was closer in relations than a nephew, and also that if Wu Chengsi became emperor, Emperor Gaozong would never again be worshiped.
Wu Zetian agreed, and for some time did not reconsider the matter. Li Dan, fearful that he was to be next, did not dare to speak of them.
When Wei further planned to falsely accuse Li Dan, however, someone else informed on her, and she was executed. There were then accusations that Li Dan was plotting treason, and under Wu Zetian's direction, Lai launched an investigation.
Lai arrested Li Dan's servants and tortured them—and the torture was such that many of them were ready to falsely implicate themselves and Li Dan.
One of Li Dan's servants, An Jincang , however, proclaimed Li Dan's innocence and cut his own belly open to swear to that fact.
When Wu Zetian heard of what An did, she had doctors attend to An and barely save his life, and then ordered Lai to end the investigation, thus saving Li Dan.
In , Li Zhaode, who had become powerful after Wu Chengsi's removal, was thought to be too powerful and Wu Zetian removed him. During this time, Wu briefly claimed to be and adopted the cult imagery of Maitreya in order to build popular support for her reign.
Subsequently, she also put Huaiyi to death. After this incident, she appeared to pay less attention to mysticism and became even more dedicated than before to the affairs of state.
Wu Zetian's administration was soon in for various troubles on the western and then northern borders, however.
A much more serious threat arose in summer Armies that Wu Zetian sent to suppress Li and Sun's rebellion were defeated by Khitan forces, which in turn attacked Zhou proper.
Meanwhile, Qapaghan Qaghan of the Second Turkic Khaganate offered to submit, and yet was also launching attacks against Zhou and Khitan—including an attack against Khitan base of operations during the winter of , shortly after Li's death, that captured Li's and Sun's families and temporarily halted Khitan operations against Zhou.
In summer , Ashina Mochuo launched another attack on Khitan's base of operations, and this time, after his attack, Khitan forces collapsed and Sun was killed in flight, ending the Khitan threat.
Meanwhile, also in , Lai Junchen, who had at one point lost power but then had returned to power, falsely accused Li Zhaode who had been pardoned of crimes, and then planned to falsely accuse Li Dan, Li Zhe, the Wu clan princes, and Princess Taiping, of treason.
The Wu clan princes and Princess Taiping acted first against him, accusing him of crimes, and he and Li Zhaode were executed together. After Lai's death, the reign of the secret police largely ended.
Gradually, many of the victims of Lai and the other secret police officials were exonerated posthumously. Around , Wu Chengsi and another nephew of Wu Zetian's, Wu Sansi , the Prince of Liang, were repeatedly making attempts to have officials persuade Wu Zetian to create one of them crown prince—again citing the reason that an emperor should pass the throne to someone of the same clan.
Di Renjie, who by now had become a trusted chancellor, was firmly against the idea, however, and proposed that Li Zhe be recalled instead.
He was supported in this by fellow chancellors Wang Fangqing and Wang Jishan , as well as Wu Zetian's close advisor Ji Xu , who further persuaded the Zhang brothers to support the idea as well.
In spring , Wu Zetian agreed and recalled Li Zhe from exile. Later, Ashina Mochuo demanded a Tang dynasty prince for marriage to his daughter, part of a plot to join his family with the Tang, displace the Zhou, and restore Tang rule over China under his influence.
In , however, at least the Tibetan threat would cease. Emperor Tridu Songtsen , unhappy that Gar Trinring was monopolizing power, took an opportunity when Trinring was away from the capital Lhasa to slaughter Trinring's associates.
He then defeated Trinring in battle, and Trinring committed suicide. After this, the Tibetan Empire was under internal turmoil for several years, and there was peace for Zhou on the border.
Also in , Wu Zetian, realizing that she was growing old, feared that after her death, Li Xian and the Wu clan princes would not be able to have peace with each other, and she made him, Li Dan, Princess Taiping, Princess Taiping's second husband Wu Youji a nephew of hers , the Prince of Ding, and other Wu clan princes to swear an oath to each other.
As Wu Zetian grew older, Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong became increasingly powerful, and even the princes of the Wu clan flattered them.
She also increasingly relied on them to handle the affairs of state. She ordered the three of them to commit suicide. Despite her old age, however, Wu Zetian continued to be interested in finding talented officials and promoting them.
Individuals she promoted in her old age included, among others, Cui Xuanwei and Zhang Jiazhen. They initially got Wei's subordinate Zhang Shuo to agree to corroborate the charges, but once Zhang Shuo was before Wu Zetian, he instead accused Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong of forcing him to bear false witness.
As a result, Wei, Gao, and Zhang Shuo were exiled, but escaped death. In winter , Wu Zetian became seriously ill for a period, and only the Zhang brothers were allowed to see her; the chancellors were not.
This led to speculation that Zhang Yizhi and Zhang Changzong were plotting to take over the throne, and there were repeated accusations of treason.
Once her condition improved, Cui Xuanwei advocated that only Li Xian and Li Dan be allowed to attend to her—a suggestion that she did not accept.
After further accusations against the Zhang brothers by Huan and Song Jing , Wu Zetian allowed Song to investigate, but before the investigation was completed, she issued a pardon for Zhang Yizhi, derailing Song's investigation.
By spring , Wu Zetian was seriously ill again. They then reported to her that the Zhang brothers had been executed for treason, and they then forced her to yield the throne to Li Xian.
On 21 February, an edict was issued in her name that made Li Xian regent, and on 22 February, an edict was issued in her name passing the throne to Li Xian.
Wu Zetian proclaimed herself as the ruler of the " Zhou dynasty ", named after the historical Zhou dynasty — BC ; and, thus, from to the Chinese Empire was known as the Zhou dynasty.
The traditional historical view, however, is to discount Wu's "Zhou dynasty": dynasties by definition involve the succession of rulers from one family: Wu's "Zhou dynasty" was founded by her, and ended within her lifetime, with her abdication This does not meet the traditional concept of a dynasty.
The alternative, is to view Wu's "Zhou dynasty" as the revival of the generally historically-accepted historical Zhou dynasty, which had been ruled at least nominally by the Ji family, almost a thousand years before.
Either way, Wu's Zhou dynasty is best viewed as a brief interruption of the Li family's Tang dynasty, rather than as a fully realized dynasty.
Her claim of founding a new dynasty, however, was little opposed at the time Though the fifteen years of Wu Zetian's Zhou dynasty had its own notable characteristics, these are difficult to separate from Wu's reign of power, which lasted for about half of a century.
Wu Zetian's consolidation of power in part relied on a system of spies. She used informants to choose persons to eliminate, a process which peaked in , with the wholesale demotion, exile, or killing of various aristocratic families and scholars, furthermore prohibiting their sons from holding office.
One apparatus of government which fell into Wu's power was the imperial examination system: the basic theory and practice of which was to recruit into government service those men who were the best educated, talented, and having the best potential to perform their duties, and to do so by testing a pool of candidates in order to determine this objectively.
This pool was male only, and the qualified pool of candidates and resulting placements into official positions was on a relatively small scale at the time of Wu's assuming control of government.
The official tests examined such things considered important for functionaries of the highly developed, bureaucratic government structure of the current imperial government.
The qualities sought in a candidate for government service included determining the potential official's level of literacy in terms of reading and writing as well as his possession of the specific knowledge considered necessary and desirable for a governmental official, such as Confucian precepts on the nature of virtue and theory on the proper ordering of and relationships within society.
Wu Zetian continued to use the imperial examination system to recruit civil servants, and she introduced major changes in regard to the system that she inherited, including increasing the pool of candidates permitted to take the test, by allowing commoners and gentry, who were previously disqualified by their background, to take them.
Another thing she did was to expand the governmental examination system and to greatly increase the importance of this method of recruiting government officials, which she did in Wu Zetian eliminated many of her real, potential, or perceived rivals to power by means of death including execution, suicide by command, and more-or-less directly killing people , demotion, and exile.
Mostly this was carried out by her secret police, led by individuals like Wao Ganjun and Lai Junchen —who were known to have written a document called the Manual of Accusation , which detailed steps for interrogation and obtaining confessions by torture.
Wu targeted various individuals, including many in her own family and her extended family. In reaction to an attempt to remove her from power, in , she massacred twelve entire collateral branches of the imperial family.
The old area of the Qin state was later referred to as Guanzhong , literally, the area "within the fortified mountain passes". It was from this area of northwest China that the Ying family of Qin arose to conquer, unifying China into its first historical empire.
During the Han dynasty , Sima Qian records in his Shiji that Guanzhong had three-tenths of China's population, but six-tenths of its wealth.
The Guangzhong aristocracy was not willing to relinquish their hold on the reins of government, however; while, at the same time, some of the more newly wealthy families in other areas, such as the North China Plain or Hubei were eager for a larger share of national power of their own.
Most of the opposition to Wu was from the Guangzhong families of northwest China. Accordingly, she repressed them, instead favoring less privileged families, thus raising to the ranks of power many talented, but less aristocratic families, often recruited through the official examination system.
Wu Zetian used her power to increase or to attempt to increase her power by manipulating Buddhist, Daoist , and Confucianist practice, sometimes in reference to the idea of the Mandate of Heaven.
There are also allegations of witchcraft or sorcery. Wu began to manipulate the symbolic aspects of religious and imperial power long before she became huangdi , one case being the Sacrifice on Mount Tai, in When Emperor Gaozong offered sacrifices to the deities of heaven and earth at Mount Tai , Empress Wu, in an unprecedented action, offered sacrifices after him, with Princess Dowager Yan, mother of Emperor Gaozong's brother Li Zhen , Prince of Yue, offering sacrifices after her.
Many of Wu Zetian's measures were of a popular nature, and helped her to gain support for her rule. Wu Zetian came to power during a time in China in which the people were fairly contented, the administration was run well, and the economy was characterized by rising living standards.
She was determined that free, self-sufficient farmers would continue to work on their own farm land, so she periodically used the juntian , equal-field system , together with updated census figures to ensure fair land allocations, re-allocating as necessary.
Wu Zetian used her military and diplomatic skills to enhance her position. The fubing system of self-supportive soldier-farmer colonies, which provided local militia and labor services for her government, allowed her to maintain her armed forces at reduced expense.
Expansion efforts against Tibet and to the northwest were less successful. Allying with the Korean kingdom of Silla against Goguryeo with the promise of ceding Goguryeo's territory to Silla, Chinese forces occupied Goguryeo after its defeat, and even began to occupy Silla territory.
Silla resisted the imposition of Chinese rule, and by allying with Goguryeo and Baekche, was able to expel its former ally from the peninsula.
Hong argues that Silla's success was in part due to a shift in Empress Wu's focus to Tibet and inadequate support for the forces in the Korean peninsula.
Another significant event of Wu Zetian's reign was , shortly after the Muslim conquest of Persia , when the first Arab ambassador arrived in China.
Around the new year , Empress Wu submitted twelve suggestions. One was that the work of Laozi whose family name was Li and to whom the Tang imperial clan traced its ancestry , Tao Te Ching , should be added to the required reading for imperial university students.
Another was that a three-year mourning period should be observed for a mother's death in all cases, not only in those cases when the father was no longer alive.
Emperor Gaozong praised her for her suggestions and adopted them. On 18 August , [ citation needed ] she approved of the requests.
Beside her own literary work, Wu Zetian's court was a focus of literary creativity. During Wu Zetian's reign, the imperial court produced various works for which she was a sponsor, such as the anthology of the poetry of her court known as the Zhuying ji "Collection of Precious Glories", which contained poems by Cui Rong , Li Jiao , Zhang Yue , and others, arranged according to the official rank at the court of the individuals included.
Wu Zetian also engaged in patronage of scholars by founding an institute to produce the Collection of Biographies of Famous Women.
Considering the events of her life, literary allusions to Wu Zetian may carry several connotations: a woman who has inappropriately overstepped her bounds, the hypocrisy of preaching compassion while simultaneously engaging in a pattern of political corruption and vicious behavior and ruling by pulling strings in the background.
For many centuries, Wu was used by the establishment as an example of what can go wrong when a woman is placed in charge. Such sexist opposition to her was only lifted during the late s when Mao Zedong 's wife Jiang Qing rehabilitated Wu as part of a propaganda campaign to suggest she be considered as a successor to her ailing husband.
In his biography Wu , British author Jonathan Clements has pointed out that these wildly differing uses of a historical figure often have led to schizophrenic and often hysterical characterizations.
Many alleged poisonings and other incidents, such as the premature death of her daughter, may have rational explanations that have been twisted by later opponents.
The traditional Chinese historical view on Wu Zetian generally was mixed—admiring her for her abilities in governing the state, but vilifying her for her actions in seizing imperial power.
Luo Binwang even wrote along these lines in a declaration during her lifetime, in support of Li Jingye's rebellion.
The year that Lady Wu declared herself regent, heroic individuals were all mournful of the unfortunate turn of events, worried that the dynasty would fall, and concerned that they could not repay the grace of the deceased emperor [i.
Soon thereafter, great accusations arose, and many innocent people were falsely accused and stuck their necks out in waiting for execution.
Heaven and earth became like a huge cage, and even if one could escape it, where could he go? That was lamentable. In the past, the trick of covering the nose [note 16] surprised the realm in its poisonousness, and the disaster of the human pig [note 17] caused the entire state to mourn.
In order to take over as empress, Empress Wu strangled her own infant daughter; her willingness to crush her own flesh and blood showed how great her viciousness and vile nature was, although this is nothing more than what evil individuals and jealous women might do.
However, she accepted the words of righteousness and honored the upright. Although she was like a hen that crowed, she eventually returned the rightful rule to her son.
She quickly dispelled the accusation against Wei Yuanzhong, comforted Di Renjie with kind words, respected the will of the times and suppressed her favorites, and listened to honest words and ended the terror of the secret police officials.
This was good, this was good. Some of the diversity in terms of points of agreement and even outright divergences in modern evaluations of Wu Zetian can be seen in the following quotes by modern non-Chinese authors:.
With single minded determination, she overcame the opposition of the Confucian establishment through her own efforts, unique among palace women by not using her own family.
Though she was ruthless towards her enemies, the period of her ascendency was a good one for China. Government was sound, no rebellions occurred, abuses in the army and administration were stamped out and Korea was annexed, an achievement no previous Chinese had ever managed.
It also fostered overstaffing and many kinds of corruption. Wu Zetian's rise and reign has been criticized harshly by Confucian historians [ citation needed ] , but has been viewed in a different and positive light after the s.
In the early period of the Tang dynasty, because all the emperors were her direct descendants, the evaluation for Wu Zetian were relatively positive.
Commentary in subsequent periods, however, especially the book Zizhi Tongjian compiled by Sima Guang, criticized Wu Zetian harshly.
By the period of Southern Song dynasty , when Neo-Confucianism was firmly established as the mainstream political ideology of China, their ideology determined the evaluation for Wu Zetian.
Wu Zetian had many chancellors during her reign as monarch of her self-proclaimed Zhou dynasty, many of them notable in their own right.
For full list see List of Chancellors of Wu Zetian. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Wu Zetian disambiguation.
For other uses, see Empress Wu disambiguation. Founding empress of the Zhou Dynasty, Empress regnant. This is a Chinese name ; the family name is Wu.
Image taken from An 18th century album of portraits of 86 emperors of China, with Chinese historical notes. British Library , Shelfmark Or.
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February Learn how and when to remove this template message. For a more comprehensive list, see List of Chancellors of Wu Zetian.
Ancestors of Wu Zetian Wu Juchang 8. Wu Jian Lady Liu 4. Wu Hua 9. Lady Song 2. Wu Shihuo, Duke Ding of Ying 5.
Lady Zhao 1. Wu Zetian Yang Shao 6. Yang Da 3. Lady Yang. China portal History portal Monarchy portal Feminism portal Biography portal.
The Zhou dynasty was terminated with the restoration of the Tang dynasty on March 3. Some sources e.
See Old Book of Tang , vol. The honorific name was used as her posthumous name when she died ten months later, although she was also frequently referred to as "Heavenly Empress" throughout the rest of Tang dynasty.
The year of birth deduced from the age at death in the Old Book of Tang , compiled in —, is The year of birth deducted from the age at death and the age when she entered the palace, in the Zizhi Tongjian , compiled in —84, is Compare New Book of Tang , vol.
They are not in the proleptic Gregorian calendar. Compare Zizhi Tongjian , vol. The Old Book of Tang , meanwhile, inconsistently asserted in the chronicles of Wu Zetian's reign that he was forced to commit suicide.
Old Book of Tang , vol. New Book of Tang , vol. See, e. See Zizhi Tongjian , vol. Emperor Xiaoming's daughter is also therefore not usually considered a true emperor.
In the story, it was mentioned that the king of Qi gave a beautiful woman to King Huai of Chu as a gift, to be his concubine.
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